Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess, over time, the objectives of individual and collective countries, in order to bring the world closer to the broader objectives of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next round of targets every five years, contrary to the Kyoto Protocol, which was aimed at this target but which contained no specific requirements to achieve this goal. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  In the context of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in their pursuit of emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets.
Vox explains why scientists are more confident than ever that climate change fuels disasters. This CFR timeline follows UN climate talks since 1992. The alliance of small island states and least developed countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most affected by the negative effects of climate change, has taken the initiative to address losses and damage as a particular theme of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that looking at the issue as a separate issue that goes beyond adaptation would create additional climate funding or imply legal responsibility for catastrophic climate events.