The United States had a trade surplus with NAFTA countries of $28.3 billion for services in 2009 and a trade deficit of $94.6 billion (36.4% per year) in 2010. This trade deficit represented 26.8% of the total U.S. trade deficit.  A 2018 study on international trade published by the Center for International Relations identified irregularities in NAFTA trade patterns using network theory analysis techniques. The study showed that the U.S. trade balance was influenced by the potential for tax evasion in Ireland.  On November 30, 2018, the USMCA was signed as planned by the three parties at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires.   Disputes over labour rights, steel and aluminum prevented ratification of this version of the agreement.   Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lightizer, and Mexican Under-Secretary of State for North America Jesus Seade officially signed a revised agreement on December 10, 2019, ratified by the three countries on March 13, 2020. The meat industry was one of the most affected agricultural sectors. In 2004, Mexico moved from a small player in the U.S. export market to the second largest importer of U.S.
agricultural products, and NAFTA may have been an important catalyst for this change. Free trade has removed barriers to business between the two countries, allowing Mexico to offer a growing meat market in the United States and increase sales and profits for the meat industry in the United States. A simultaneous and dramatic increase in Mexican GDP per capita has significantly changed meat consumption patterns due to increased per capita meat consumption.  The kick-off of a North American free trade area began with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who made the idea part of his campaign by announcing his candidacy for president in November 1979.  Canada and the United States signed the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in 1988, and shortly thereafter, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari decided to address U.S. President George H.W.
Bush to propose a similar agreement to make foreign investment after the Latin American debt crisis.  When the two leaders began negotiations, the Canadian government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney feared that the benefits that Canada had gained through the Canada-U.S. free trade agreement would be undermined by a bilateral agreement between the United States and Mexico, and asked to be associated with the U.S.-Mexico talks.  United States