It is clear from the above facts that the government has advised against the development of collective bargaining in India. But the truth is that the government`s intention has never been to discourage them. Indeed, work in India is not very well organized and should not be expected to get its fair share through collective bargaining. The united working class becomes a power to protect its interests from the exploitation of employers through collective bargaining. An extremely important aspect is the limitation of the effectiveness of collective agreements in relation to the individual employment contract. Under Article 14, paragraph 1, employment contracts can always improve the terms set by the agreements, which means that they can never be considered absolutely binding standards for individual contracts. Individual autonomy can always improve the system of collective autonomy in favour of the worker. When negotiating the contract, the union and management present each other`s demands, jeopardize their differences and agree on the conditions under which workers must be employed for the duration of the contract. The scope of collective bargaining is very heterogeneous; In some industrial sectors, almost all workers agree, while in others, only a small proportion of company employees are covered by the agreement. Collective agreements also include decisions on working time and overtime pay.
Trade Union Pro`s collective agreements include, for example, agreements on shift work differences, travel allowances, sick pay, maternity leave benefits, leave pay and child care benefits. 93. Where an employer (or employer) enters into a collective agreement with a workers` union or organization, that agreement should be written and there should be provisions for future changes, interpretations and dismissals by either party under certain conditions. There are 5 main types of collective bargaining1. Distribution negotiations2. Integrative trading3. Productivity negotiations4. Bargaining Composite5. Dealer Negotiations If the government is committed to supporting the principle of collective bargaining, why has it not been tried to promote it by law? The Trade Union Review Act 1947 did not provide for the mandatory recognition of representative unions by employers, but it was never notified and therefore never came into force.
Despite this controversy, collective bargaining was first introduced in India in 1952 and gradually gained importance in subsequent years. However, the information on the growth of collective bargaining is very meagre and progress in this area has not been very visible, but not negligible. Data published by the labour office show that the practice of setting pay and employment conditions has spread to most major segments of the economy. Horizontal and Vertical Collective Agreements The Collective Relations Act distinguishes horizontal collective agreements, i.e. professional agreements that cover a group of workers identified for a particular occupation or job (. B, for example, an agreement for pilots) and vertical collective agreements, that is, . Sectoral agreements governing workers` industrial and labour relations, set for all employees in a particular sector (. B for example, an agreement for the textile industry or the banking sector).